A microprocessor (abbreviated as μP or uP) is a central processing unit (CPU) electronic computer made of transistors and other circuit board on top of a semiconductor integrated circuit.
Prior to the development of microprocessors, electronic CPUs made of separate TTL integrated circuits; earlier, individual transistors; earlier again, from vacuum tubes. In fact there has been a simple design for the engine computer on the basis of mechanical parts such as gears, shafts, lever, Tinkertoy, etc..
Evolution of microprocessors has been known to follow Moore’s Law is an improved performance from year to year. This theory is formulated that the counting will double every 18 months, a process that was going on since the early 1970s: a surprise for people who relate. From the beginning as a driver in the calculator, progress has been heading to the dominance of power in various types of computer microprocessors; every system from the largest mainframes to the smallest grasp computers now uses a microprocessor as its center. The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and are used for electronic calculators, using binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic on 4-bit. Other embedded uses 4 – and 8-bit, such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation etc, followed rather quickly. Affordable 8-bit to 16-bit address also led to the first general-purpose microcomputers in the mid-1970s.
Here are the essential characteristics of the microprocessor:
1. Size of the internal data bus (internal data bus size): The number of channels contained in the microprocessor state the number of bits that can be transferred between components in the microprocessor.
2. Size of the external data bus (external data bus size): The number of channels used to transfer data between components between the microprocessor and other components outside the microprocessor.
3. The size of the memory address (memory address size): The number of memory addresses that can be directly addressed by the microprocessor.
4. Clock speed (clock speed): Rate or speed of the microprocessor clock to guide the work.
5. Special features (special features): Special features to support specific applications such as floating point processing facilities, multimedia and so on.
Computer processor in the long term built from small and medium-sized IC contains the equivalent of up to hundreds of transistors. Integration of the whole CPU onto a single chip thus greatly reducing the cost of processing capacity. From humble beginnings, continued increases in microprocessor capacity have been given other forms of computers almost completely obsolete, with one or more microprocessor as processing element in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers.
Since the early 1970s, an increase in capacity of microprocessors has been known to generally follow Moore’s Law, which shows that the complexity of integrated circuits, which related to minimum component cost, doubles every two years. In the late 1990s, and in high-performance microprocessor segment, heat generation (TDP), due to switching losses, static current leakage, and other factors, emerged as a leading developmental constraint.