Alat untuk Mengendalikan Komputer dengan Gerakan Tangan

Alat untuk Mengendalikan Komputer dengan Gerakan Tangan

The new microsoft digits, which was recently unveiled at a technology conference, allows for freehand 3-d interaction by wearing a gloveless sensor on the wrist. The integrated technology remembers and recovers certain poses of the user’s hand, and since the sensor is only on the wrist, the user is free to interact freely with other devices. It can be used to play video games or as a virtual tv control and can even operate a smartphone without leaving the user’s pocket.

This tool is similar to a wristwatch, so you just wear it .. after that you can directly control a computer with hand gestures.


Sensoring Technology
The secret to the Digits success lies in its understanding of how the human hand moves. By being able to copy every movement from the orientation of the wrist to the angle of each joint of the finger, its 3d functionality is not tied down to any point in space. Similar products in the past have relied on the user wearing a special sensoring glove, but that is not necessary with the Microsoft prototype, which delivers the same accuracy but with more flexibility.
Added Mobility
One of the main goals of the Digits team was to provide superior mobility. Since the Digits sensor is worn on the wrist and does not use an external infrastructure, users are not restricted to movement within a fixed space. It is small, comfortable, lightweight and needs a minimum amount of power. With its built-in technology, the 3D interaction follows the user around indoors or out.
Integrated Components
The beauty of Digits is that it is built entirely of cheap products easily found on the open market. The basis of the system is a simple infrared camera with a laser line generator and goes on to add an infrared diffuse illuminator and an inertial measurement unit. The components integrate beautifully to interpret data and construct a fully articulated model of the hand.

Digital Image File Types Explained

JPG, GIF, TIFF, PNG, BMP. What are they, and how do you choose? These and many other file types are used to encode digital images. The choices are simpler than you might think.

Part of the reason for the plethora of file types is the need for compression. Image files can be quite large, and larger file types mean more disk usage and slower downloads. Compression is a term used to describe ways of cutting the size of the file. Compression schemes can by lossy or lossless.

Another reason for the many file types is that images differ in the number of colors they contain. If an image has few colors, a file type can be designed to exploit this as a way of reducing file size.

Lossy vs. Lossless compression

You will often hear the terms “lossy” and “lossless” compression. A lossless compression algorithm discards no information. It looks for more efficient ways to represent an image, while making no compromises in accuracy. In contrast, lossy algorithms accept some degradation in the image in order to achieve smaller file size.

A lossless algorithm might, for example, look for a recurring pattern in the file, and replace each occurrence with a short abbreviation, thereby cutting the file size. In contrast, a lossy algorithm might store color information at a lower resolution than the image itself, since the eye is not so sensitive to changes in color of a small distance.

Number of colors

Images start with differing numbers of colors in them. The simplest images may contain only two colors, such as black and white, and will need only 1 bit to represent each pixel. Many early PC video cards would support only 16 fixed colors. Later cards would display 256 simultaneously, any of which could be chosen from a pool of 224, or 16 million colors. New cards devote 24 bits to each pixel, and are therefore capable of displaying 224, or 16 million colors without restriction. A few display even more. Since the eye has trouble distinguishing between similar colors, 24 bit or 16 million colors is often called TrueColor.

The file types

TIFF is, in principle, a very flexible format that can be lossless or lossy. The details of the image storage algorithm are included as part of the file. In practice, TIFF is used almost exclusively as a lossless image storage format that uses no compression at all. Most graphics programs that use TIFF do not compression. Consequently, file sizes are quite big. (Sometimes a lossless compression algorithm called LZW is used, but it is not universally supported.)

PNG is also a lossless storage format. However, in contrast with common TIFF usage, it looks for patterns in the image that it can use to compress file size. The compression is exactly reversible, so the image is recovered exactly.

GIF creates a table of up to 256 colors from a pool of 16 million. If the image has fewer than 256 colors, GIF can render the image exactly. When the image contains many colors, software that creates the GIF uses any of several algorithms to approximate the colors in the image with the limited palette of 256 colors available. Better algorithms search the image to find an optimum set of 256 colors. Sometimes GIF uses the nearest color to represent each pixel, and sometimes it uses “error diffusion” to adjust the color of nearby pixels to correct for the error in each pixel.

GIF achieves compression in two ways. First, it reduces the number of colors of color-rich images, thereby reducing the number of bits needed per pixel, as just described. Second, it replaces commonly occurring patterns (especially large areas of uniform color) with a short abbreviation: instead of storing “white, white, white, white, white,” it stores “5 white.”

Thus, GIF is “lossless” only for images with 256 colors or less. For a rich, true color image, GIF may “lose” 99.998% of the colors.

JPG is optimized for photographs and similar continuous tone images that contain many, many colors. It can achieve astounding compression ratios even while maintaining very high image quality. GIF compression is unkind to such images. JPG works by analyzing images and discarding kinds of information that the eye is least likely to notice. It stores information as 24 bit color. Important: the degree of compression of JPG is adjustable. At moderate compression levels of photographic images, it is very difficult for the eye to discern any difference from the original, even at extreme magnification. Compression factors of more than 20 are often quite acceptable. Better graphics programs, such as Paint Shop Pro and Photoshop, allow you to view the image quality and file size as a function of compression level, so that you can conveniently choose the balance between quality and file size.

RAW is an image output option available on some digital cameras. Though lossless, it is a factor of three of four smaller than TIFF files of the same image. The disadvantage is that there is a different RAW format for each manufacturer, and so you may have to use the manufacturer’s software to view the images. (Some graphics applications can read some manufacturer’s RAW formats.)

BMP is an uncompressed proprietary format invented by Microsoft. There is really no reason to ever use this format.

PSD, PSP, etc. , are proprietary formats used by graphics programs. Photoshop’s files have the PSD extension, while Paint Shop Pro files use PSP. These are the preferred working formats as you edit images in the software, because only the proprietary formats retain all the editing power of the programs. These packages use layers, for example, to build complex images, and layer information may be lost in the nonproprietary formats such as TIFF and JPG. However, be sure to save your end result as a standard TIFF or JPG, or you may not be able to view it in a few years when your software has changed.

Currently, GIF and JPG are the formats used for nearly all web images. PNG is supported by most of the latest generation browsers. TIFF is not widely supported by web browsers, and should be avoided for web use. PNG does everything GIF does, and better, so expect to see PNG replace GIF in the future. PNG will not replace JPG, since JPG is capable of much greater compression of photographic images, even when set for quite minimal loss of quality.

File size comparisons

The classification of information technology

teknologi-informasi112Continue my last article “ What is information Technology (IT) ? ” From this  we know that Information Tachnology cover computer Technology and Communication Technology . Detailed,  Information Technology have 5 type are input technology, processing machine technology,storage technology,output technology and software technology.

  1. Input Technology
    Input technology is a technology that have relation with something to input data in computer sistem. Input tool usually found in computer sistem form keyboard and mouse.
  2. Processing machine technology
    Processing machine called CPU(Central Processing Unit), mikroprosesor, or  prosesor. For example a famous processor now on are Pentium and Power PC.
  3. Storage Technology
    hdStorage technology differ to  2 group,there are internal and external memory.Internal memory called main memory use to temporary saver for data, program, or  information when processing by CPU.example to internal memory are ROM and RAM. In  ROM (Read Only Memory) we just can read data,we can’t upgrade or change data but in RAM we can do it.external storage called secondary storage.External storage is permanently data saver, our data still save save without electricity power.example : Harddisk ,disket and Flashdisk.
  4. Output technology
    Output technology is a technology that relation with output sistem.example of output technology are  Monitor and printer  .
  5. Software Technology
    Software called program. Of course to doing  computer function, needed software self. For example : Microsoft Word is software to processing the word and making some document, Adobe Photoshop to processing a picture.

Hopefully, this article can provide greater insight and to contribute ideas to the readers especially the students of Brawijaya University. We are aware that this paper is still a lot of flaws and is far from perfect. Therefore, to our English lecturer asks input for improving our article  making in the future and expect criticism and suggestions from readers.

Andrika Wahyu W – 125150300111037

Oculus Rift: Virtual reality

Oculus Rift: Virtual reality

Palmer Luckey, 20, wants to give virtual reality a second life. The technology — gadgets that cover the eyes and create 3-D images — has been a fixture in science fiction since the 1980s but never took off because real-life devices were scandalously expensive. Luckey, a homeschooled tinkerer, has been working on perfecting the idea for three years, taking cues from today’s smartphones. His Oculus Rift raised $2.4 million on Kickstarter. No launch date is yet set.

We have one of the first Oculus Rift development kits in house, and spend the day testing it in Team Fortress 2. Watch how this virtual reality head-mounted display works in-game with every available control setting, as Will practices rocket jumping and we discuss the promises and challenges of VR.

What do you think of our Oculus Rift Reactions? Do you want to see more Oculus Rift TF2?

The Computer Generations


In the beginning … 
        A generation refers to the state of improvement in the development of a product.  This term is also used in the different advancements of computer technology.  With each new generation, the circuitry has gotten smaller and more advanced than the previous generation before it.  As a result of the miniaturizationspeedpower, and memory of computers has proportionally increased.  New discoveries are constantly being developed that affect the way we live, work and play.


The First Generation:  1946-1958 (The Vacuum Tube Years) 
        The first generation computers were huge, slow, expensive, and often undependable.  In 1946two Americans, Presper Eckert, and John Mauchly built the ENIAC electronic computer which used vacuum tubes instead of the mechanical switches of the Mark I.  The ENIAC used thousands of vacuum tubes, which took up a lot of space and gave off a great deal of heat just like light bulbs do.  The ENIAC led to other vacuum tube type computers like the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) and theUNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer).


        The vacuum tube was an extremely important step in the advancement of computers.  Vacuum tubes were invented the same time the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison and worked very similar to light bulbs.  It’s purpose was to act like an amplifier and a switch.  Without any moving parts, vacuum tubes could take very weak signals and make the signal stronger (amplify it).  Vacuum tubes could also stop and start the flow of electricity instantly (switch).  These two properties made the ENIAC computer possible.

       The ENIAC gave off so much heat that they had to be cooled by gigantic air conditioners.  However even with these huge coolers, vacuum tubes still overheated regularly.  It was time for something new. 


The Second Generation: 1959-1964 (The Era of the Transistor)
The transistor computer did not last as long as the vacuum tube computer lasted, but it was no less important in the advancement of computer technology. In 1947 three scientists, John Bardeen,William Shockley, and Walter Brattain working at AT&T’s Bell Labs invented what would replace the vacuum tube forever. This invention was the transistor which functions like a vacuum tube in that it can be used to relay and switch electronic signals.
There were obvious differences between the transisitor and the vacuum tube. The transistor was faster, more reliable, smaller, and much cheaper to build than a vacuum tube. One transistor replaced the equivalent of 40 vacuum tubes. These transistors were made of solid material, some of which is silicon, an abundant element (second only to oxygen) found in beach sand and glass. Therefore they were very cheap to produce. Transistors were found to conduct electricity faster and better than vacuum tubes. They were also much smaller and gave off virtually no heat compared to vacuum tubes. Their use marked a new beginning for the computer. Without this invention, space travel in the 1960’s would not have been possible. However, a new invention would even further advance our ability to use computers.


The Third Generation: 1965-1970 (Integrated Circuits – Miniaturizing the Computer)
Transistors were a tremendous breakthrough in advancing the computer. However no one could predict that thousands even now millions of transistors (circuits) could be compacted in such a small space. The integrated circuit, or as it is sometimes referred to as semiconductor chip, packs a huge number of transistors onto a single wafer of silicon. Robert Noyce of Fairchild Corporation and Jack Kilby ofTexas Instruments independently discovered the amazing attributes of integrated circuits. Placing such large numbers of transistors on a single chip vastly increased the power of a single computer and lowered its cost considerably.
Since the invention of integrated circuits, the number of transistors that can be placed on a single chip has doubled every two years, shrinking both the size and cost of computers even further and further enhancing its power. Most electronic devices today use some form of integrated circuits placed on printed circuit boards– thin pieces of bakelite or fiberglass that have electrical connections etched onto them — sometimes called amother board.

These third generation computers could carry out instructions in billionths of a second. The size of these machines dropped to the size of small file cabinets. Yet, the single biggest advancement in the computer era was yet to be discovered.


The Fourth Generation:  1971-Today (The Microprocessor) 
        This generation can be characterized by both the jump to monolithic integrated circuits(millions of transistors put onto one integrated circuit chip) and the invention of the microprocessor (a single chip that could do all the processing of a full-scale computer).  By putting millions of transistors onto one single chip more calculation and faster speeds could be reached by computers.  Because electricity travels about a foot in a billionth of a second, the smaller the distance the greater the speed of computers.

        However what really triggered the tremendous growth of computers and its significant impact on our lives is the invention of the microprocessor.  Ted Hoff, employed by Intel (Robert Noyce’s new company) invented a chip the size of a pencil eraser that could do all the computing and logic work of a computer.  The microprocessor was made to be used in calculators, not computers.  It led, however, to the invention of personal computers, or microcomputers.

        It wasn’t until the 1970’s that people began buying computer for personal use.  One of the earliest personal computers was the Altair 8800 computer kit.  In 1975 you could purchase this kit and put it together to make your own personal computer.  In 1977 the Apple II was sold to the public and in 1981 IBM entered the PC (personal computer) market.

        Today we have all heard of Intel and its Pentium® Processors and now we know how it all got started.  The computers of the next generation will have millions upon millions of transistors on one chip and will perform over a billion calculations in a single second.  There is no end in sight for the computer movement.


How To Overcome A Fear Of Computers


Does the thought of computers make you fearful , worried or concerned? Does it cause anxiety as you know you should learn how to use one? Do you feel overwhelmed at the thought of learning a new skill? Are you afraid that you might not be able to learn? Are you scared that you might press the wrong button and delete everything?

A key emotion that can keep you from achieving what you want in life is Fear or Low level concern, Anxiety, Worry. I’m not talking about panic attacks, high level fears and phobias, which are often caused by a significant emotional event in your past. The fear and anxiety I am referring to are those daily worries, niggles or sixth sense telling you that all is not quite right for you. They can keep you stuck if you allow them to and can grow out of all proportion if you don’t act to resolve the feelings.If this fear is having a significant negative impact on your life, it’s time to do something about it.
Luckily these fears can be turned into a positive resource and can be easily overcome. They are telling you that something is going to happen soon that you need to prepare for. They are your body’s way of alerting you to something you need to do.

The solution
• Review what you are feeling fearful about and evaluate what you must do to prepare yourself.
• Figure out what actions you need to take to deal with the situation in the best possible way.

Overcoming your fear – e.g. a fear of learning IT Skills
1. Understand your reason for wanting to learn new skills. What does it mean to you? What will it give you? What’s in it for you?
If you have a compelling reason for achieving your goal of learning a new skill then you will overcome any barriers that might come along.
2. Identify what you are afraid of. What exactly are you saying to yourself? If it’s ‘I can’t do this’ or ‘I’m too old to learn something new’ or ‘I might make a mistake and break something’. These are negative or limiting beliefs that you have about the situation and if you allow them to, will stop you from being successful. What you need to do is change a negative thought to a positive one. For example, ‘I can do it’ or ‘Even though I am XX I can learn a new skill’.
One of my favourite quotes is from Henry Ford who said ‘If you think you can or you think you can’t, your right!’ Start telling yourself that you can do it.
3. What do you need to do? Who can support you? Who do you know who has already done what you want to do? What courses are there locally?
4. Decide what you need to do, believe that you can do it, then do it!
At this stage also check in with yourself about your level of commitment. Rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10 with 1 being low and 10 being High as to how much you really want to learn about IT. If it’s 7 and above well done and go to it. Anything below 7 then you need to go back to your goal and understand what it is that you want to achieve. Once you are at 10 then you will do whatever it takes.

Database Systems


The purpose of a database is to keep track of things (Kroenke, 2007). Databases can exist on paper, for example a telephone directory, but are ineicient and costly to maintain. A computer-based database ofers the advantage of powerful search facilities which can be used to locate and retrieve information many times faster than by manual methods. An electronic database provides facilities for users to add, amend or delete records as required. Indexing features mean that the same basic information can be stored under a number of diferent categories. his provides great lexibility and allows users to locate, retrieve and organise information as needed. Databases used throughout a company are usually accessed by many diferent users across a network system. Some of the advantages of this approach include minimising the unnecessary duplication of information, consistency is maintained by ensuring any changes made to the information held in the database are relected to all users and although information is held in a structured manner, the database sotware will normally provide suicient lexibility to meet the diferent requirements of individual users and departments.


The data in an electronic database is organised by ields and records. A ield is a single item of information, such as a name or a quantity. A record is a collection of related ields and a table is a collection of related records. In order to identify a speciic item of information within a database, all records must contain a unique identiier, normally called the key ield or primary key. he key ield usually takes the form of a number or code and will be diferent for each record in the database.


Relational databases enable data to be stored within a number of diferent tables and are the most widely used type of database. he tables within a relational database can be linked together using one or more record keys. his include the primary key and also other keys to help locate data stored in another table. he record keys contained in each table can used to establish one or more relationships between tables. By using record keys in combination it is possible to retrieve data from several tables at once. he ield used to locate information in another, related table is oten called a foreign key.


The majority of database programs support the creation of relational databases containing several linked tables. Many programs, such as Microsot Access, provide the ability to link tables together automatically to create any required relationships. All major database programs enable users to create and modify data entry forms. A data entry form provides a convenient means of viewing, entering, editing and deleting records. An index stores information concerning the order of the records in the database. All modern database programs provide a range of sophisticated security features. Examples of some of the most common features available including encryption and password protection. Finally all major database packages allow users to generate a wide variety of reports. Many programs are capable of creating simple reports automatically. In addition, many programs allow users to perform calculations and other actions as the report is produced.


When using database sotware data is retrieved from a database using what is called a query. A query enables a user to locate, sort, update or extract records from the database. Users design a query by specifying the conditions that must be met in order for a record to be selected. here are two types of query called selection queries and update queries: A selection query can be used to locate and display any records meeting a set of speciied conditions. None of the data held in the database are altered and any records not meeting the conditions set are simply hidden from view temporarily. An update query can be used to modify records in a variety of ways such as according to a set of conditions speciied by the user. Common actions performed by update queries include updating values held in ields, deleting any records no longer required, appending new records to the database and generating new tables containing selected records or summary information.


The majority of database programs make use of a special structured query language (SQL) in order to create queries. Structured query language (SQL) provides a standardised method for retrieving information from databases. Although traditionally used to manage large databases held on mainframes and minicomputers, it has become a widely used and popular tool for personal computer database packages. SQL programs are created by producing a series of statements containing special key words.