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Original Chip Made in Indonesia ?!.,,,,

Xirka Wimax chipset, a chip made ​​by an Indonesian native, not an easy effort is made ​​chips with a fairly high complexity. Xirka Indonesian engineer who escorted some of these were developed in 2006. This chipset consists of two specifications, namely Chipset Xirka for Fixed Wimax and Mobile Wimax Chipset Xirka for. For fixed wimax was launched in August this year. While mobile wimax slated for release in the fourth quartal 2009.Produk original made in Indonesia was launched by the Minister of Research and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia, Kusmayanto Kadiman. He explained that all the components in the Xirka is made ​​in Indonesia. Wimax operators who provide services must use Xirka.

The Role of Memory in Computer Processing of Data

The Role of Memory in Computer Processing of Data thumbnail

Computer memory speeds up the processing of data by the central processing unit, or CPU. Memory is accessed much faster than a physical storage device, such as a hard drive. By placing certain data in memory, the computer can access the data quicker, which allows its overall functioning to be more efficient.

Functions of Computer Memory

  • Computers store data and sets of instructions in memory for quick access. The operating system’s core files are stored in the memory so the computer is functional for the user. As processes are executed, needed information is stored in the memory so that the CPU can quickly navigate between the data that it needs. This prevents the CPU from needing to access the hard drive for everything.


  • Multi-tasking uses memory to allow a user to run multiple programs at once. Different programs are stored so they can be switched between seamlessly. This enhances the user’s productivity.

Raw Speed

  • Memory access speeds are thousands of times faster than hard drive access speeds. A hard drive is a mechanical device with moving parts. It can only find and use data at a certain rate. Memory is lightning fast in accessing what it holds. This makes using your computer much more efficient and pleasant.

How Computers Work ?

The computer does its primary work in a part of the machine we cannot see, a control center that converts data input to information output. This control center, called the central processing unit (CPU), is a highly complex, extensive set of electronic circuitry that executes stored program instructions. All computers, large and small, must have a central processing unit. As Figure 1 shows, the central processing unit consists of two parts: The control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit. Each part has a specific function.

Before we discuss the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit in detail, we need to consider data storage and its relationship to the central processing unit. Computers use two types of storage: Primary storage and secondary storage. The CPU interacts closely with primary storage, or main memory, referring to it for both instructions and data. For this reason this part of the reading will discuss memory in the context of the central processing unit. Technically, however, memory is not part of the CPU. 

Recall that a computer’s memory holds data only temporarily, at the time the computer is executing a program. Secondary storage holds permanent or semi-permanent data on some external magnetic or optical medium. The diskettes and CD-ROM disks that you have seen with personal computers are secondary storage devices, as are hard disks. Since the physical attributes of secondary storage devices determine the way data is organized on them, we will discuss secondary storage and data organization together in another part of our on-line readings. 
Now let us consider the components of the central processing unit.

Windows 9 True or False ?


Microsoft officially unveiled Windows 8 in October 2012. But the rumors have accompanied the operating system’s successor.

Previously widely heard if Microsoft is preparing the first update of Windows 8, the Windows named Blue. But is it just?

Of course not, because the sources are obtained by Digitimes claims that the software giant is currently preparing another generation of Windows.

Rumors circulating mentioning that this is referred to as Windows 9. It would be the latest generation after Windows 8. from Softpedia, Tuesday (09/04/2013).
The source also get leaked that Windows 9 is the middle of the work period will be launched shortly after Windows Blue presented. That is, if the Windows Blue crowded reported released around August, then Windows 9 will be in October. Fitting a year after the birth of Windows 8

Integrated Circuits (Chips)

Integrated Circuits are usually called ICs or chips. They are complex circuits which have been etched onto tiny chips of semiconductor (silicon). The chip is packaged in a plastic holder with pins spaced on a 0.1″ (2.54mm) grid which will fit the holes on stripboard and breadboards. Very fine wires inside the package link the chip to the pins.

IC pin numbers

Pin numbers

The pins are numbered anti-clockwise around the IC (chip) starting near the notch or dot. The diagram shows the numbering for 8-pin and 14-pin ICs, but the principle is the same for all sizes. 

IC holders (DIL sockets)

IC holder (DIL socket)ICs (chips) are easily damaged by heat when soldering and their short pins cannot be protected with a heat sink. Instead we use an IC holder, strictly called a DIL socket (DIL = Dual In-Line), which can be safely soldered onto the circuit board. The IC is pushed into the holder when all soldering is complete.

IC holders are only needed when soldering so they are not used on breadboards.

Commercially produced circuit boards often have ICs soldered directly to the board without an IC holder, usually this is done by a machine which is able to work very quickly. Please don’t attempt to do this yourself because you are likely to destroy the IC and it will be difficult to remove without damage by de-soldering.


Removing an IC from its holder

If you need to remove an IC it can be gently prised out of the holder with a small flat-blade screwdriver. Carefully lever up each end by inserting the screwdriver blade between the IC and its holder and gently twisting the screwdriver. Take care to start lifting at both ends before you attempt to remove the IC, otherwise you will bend and possibly break the pins.


Apricorn Aegis Bio USB 3.0

It seems as if every time you look at the news, someone has hacked a site, or breached security at a corporation. In some cases, people have lost or had stolen laptops with sensitive or even Top Secret data. In a world where information has become one of the most important resources, security and vulnerability have become even more important.

Addressing this issue is seldom simple, and there’s always a compromise that has to be made between ease-of-access and enhanced security.

One solution is to simply store secure information in the cloud and download it when you need to access or work with it. That puts the data somewhere other than on the physical laptop, but requires that you have cloud access when you want or need to access the secure information. And, if the files are large, can be frustratingly slow even with 4G broadband.

Another solution is biometric access. Fingerprint readers and even facial recognition in lieu of a password is exceedingly common these days. This approach is convenient — you always have your face, and hopefully your finger(s) with you. But it’s really not that hard to pull a hard drive out of a laptop and bypass any need for a password.

At the present time, the most secure approach to data security is encryption. Even 256-bit encryption can be broken, but unless your laptop falls into the hands of one of the three-letter intelligence agencies, it’s pretty unlikely that files encrypted with 256-bit AES/XTS encryption algorithms are going to be accessible.

You could encrypt the entire hard drive, and many users do exactly that. But unless you have a lot of sensitive data on your hard drive, encrypting your playlists and MP3 files seems a lot like building a barn to house a hamster.


Security Without The Overkill

Rather than jump through hoops to protect data that really doesn’t need protecting, why not segregate the information that needs additional security, and provide vigorous measures to secure just that?

Apricorn’s Aegis Bio 3.0 portable hard drive approaches the security problem in just that way. It applies both fingerprint biometric access to the drive, and also hardware encrypts all of the data on the drive automatically.

The drive itself is rectangular, and measures 4.7 x 3.3 x 0.75-inches, almost exactly the same size as the Seagate FreeAgent GoFlex drive I used for comparison. Both are USB 3.0 models, and are powered by the USB 3.0 bus. Since the drive is backwards compatible with earlier versions of USB, which may not supply as much current to the USB port, Apricorn supplies an adapter cable which plugs into two USB ports to supply additional power to the drive.

A nice feature is that an attached USB cable stores in a slot along the right side of the drive. You never have to remember to pack a USB cable, or look for one when you want to use the drive. Of course, this is also a potential point of failure since all cables wear out over time and there is no way to replace this one since it’s built into the drive.

Other than a trio of different colored LEDs above a fingerprint scanner and a small pushbutton underneath the reader, the drive is pretty much indistinguishable from any other portable USB hard drive.

The Aegis Bio 3.0 comes in three capacities: 500GB ($199), 750GB ($219) and the 1TB model I tested ($249). The drive used in the Aegis Bio 3.0 is a 5400 RPM model, and the fingerprint sensor and chip is from AuthenTec. The Aegis Bio 3.0 uses AES-XTX encryption. More information on this encryption is available on the NIST (National Institute of Standards) web site, which is the organization that codifies encryption (and other) standards.

Fortunately, you don’t need to know how it works to use it. Data is automatically encrypted before it’s written to disk, and unencrypted before it’s transferred between the drive and a laptop or PC.