1. Sudo su diigunakan untuk login sebagai root/pengguna tertinggi


2. Login diigunakan untuk login sebagai user lain, namun harus menjadi root dulu untuk bisa menjalankan perintah ini.


3. date digunakan untuk melihat tanggal sekarang, cal untuk melihat kalender


4. Hostname digunakan untuk melihat hostname, uname –a menampilkan semua informasi, uname –m untuk menampilkan tipe hardware


5. Who untuk mencetak semua pengguna yang sedang login, whoami untuk mencetak pengguna saat ini dan nama ID


6. PWD digunakan untuk memperlihatkan di direktori mana posisi kita berada sekarang.


7. Menampilkan bantuan untuk beberapa perintah contohnya perintah ls


8. Clear untuk membersihkan perintah-perintah yang diketikan sebelumnyaImage

9. Mengetahui perintah-perintah apa saja dilihat dari fungsinya secara massal


10. Mendapatkan informasi dari perintah secara singkat (dibawah ini informasi singkat dari date)Image

11. Perintah ini berfungsi untuk menampilkan isi dari suatu directory beserta atribut filenya.


12. touch digunakan untuk membuat file baru.Image

13. mkdir digunakan membuat sebuah directory atau folder.Image

14. cd digunakan untuk berpindah direktori.Image

15. cp digunakan untuk melakukan copy file.


16. mv digunakan untuk melakukan memindahkan, cut atau rename file.


17. rm digunakan untuk menghapus file.Image

18. more digunakan untuk menampilkan isi sebuah fileImage

19. cat untuk membuat file tertentu dan mengisinya


20. Mail berfungsi mengirimkan mail ke diri sendiri (G1 gambar mail belum terinstall, G2 adalah gambar mail sudah terinstall dan terkirim)


21. cut berfungsi mendefinisikan suatu file yang berisi data berdasarkan kolom


22. Find untuk mencari file atau directoryImage

23. Grep untuk mencari data dalam file tertentu.Image

24. Kegunaan perintah in adalah untuk membuat link dari satu file/directori ke file/directori lain.


25. Perintah locate digunakan untuk mengetahui dimana letaknya sebuah file atau directori. Fungsinya kurang lebih sama dengan find, bedanya locate menggunakan sebuah database (biasanya terletak di /var/lib/locatedb ) yang dapat di update menggunakan perintah updatedb.


26. dir memiliki fungsi yang sama dengan perintah ls, yaitu menampilkan is direktori. Anda bisa membuka manual dari perintah dir. Pemberian option dan argument sama dengan perintah ls.


27. Perintah ini berlawanan dengan perintah cut, tail mendefinisikan sebuah data pada file menurut barisnya. Sedikit perbedaan adalah pada tail secara default ditampilkan 10 baris terakhir dari isi file


28. wc adalah perintah untuk menampilkan jumlah baris, jumlah kata dan ukuran dari sebuah file. (Terdapat 2 baris, 5 kata, dan 18 karakter pada file tes)


29. sort untuk mengurutkan isi file berdasarkan huruf


30. logout digunakan untuk logout dari system.


31. history digunakan melihat perintah yang telah dihentikan


32. Reboot untuk merestart ubuntu, dan shutdown untuk mematikan ubuntu (harus masuk sudo su terlebih dahulu)


33. Perintah sudo su digunakan jika ingin berpindah dari user biasa ($) menjadi super user atau root (#)



 Cause of broken Computer (hang)


Computers we have a hang sometimes make us upset and worried when we were doing the coursework of a sudden have a hang. Relax, I’ll help you solve the problem …..  could cause some problems caused by the following note


1. Computer experience excessive heat likely ignited too long or the CPU fan is not working or spinning rather slowly.


2. too many open applications so that the computer thinks is too heavy, causing hangs or the term deadlook.hehehe ….


3. Applications that we use does not match your hardware sample we play games that do not conform to the specifications of your computer because the game is too big for the weight of memory to run.


4. because virus, the virus can multiply how many million units, too much load your computer to accept the presence of the virus.


5. Incompatible antivirus, antivirus adjust to match the specifications of your computer big do not like computers we use AVG but lower specification eg use 512mb ram can make it hang.


Azhar Rasyid Hidayat


The Importance of Technology in Our Daily Lives Technology

The Importance of Technology in Our Daily Lives

         Technology is an absolute need we cannot escape from. Let’s just say, it has a very big role in most aspects of our lives. In other words, it answers most of Mankind problems. Across centuries technology evolves. The importance of technology is aiming for comfort of use in whichever form it is. It always directs for easiness in life.

Take the mobile technology for example. The faster the world is moving, the more hi-end the features are offered. Laptop gets thinner and smaller. It becomes more compact every year and offers more capabilities and top performance. It should load a lot of stuffs in a more concise shape. That is the need. Period. People should not take time to think of what should be brought over a sales presentation in the southern state since everything is already “filed” in the laptop.

Also for telephone. The need to be able to communicate anytime, anywhere, has inspired scientists to create cellular phone. And it gets smaller and smaller. And then it has more features, more games, more entertainment, and now offered more professional like having a computer in the pocket. And then from costly, it goes cheaper and better and faster and become more reliable.

The fact that the importance of technology in our daily basis is undeniable has inspired scientists to make improvements from time to time through their invented tools and devices for us to use, just to make our lives easier. We always tend to make one step ahead. Technology can help not just with the present but also approximating the future. It can calculate the potential profits and losses. And based on these, we can create plans and a list of pre-cautious steps for the future of our descendants.



What is Information Technology

Information technology is the use and application of the computer system to process, manage and distribute information. Use of IT in this context involves both the hardware and software components. Some major advantages of Information Technology in various areas are listed below:

Speed and Accuracy in information Processing

With the use of IT more work can be done by individuals, businesses, services and government organisations. Function enhancement programs such as word processors, database programs and spreadsheets can get work done in less time with increased accuracy and efficiency.

Global Social Interaction

IT has made global social and cultural interaction very simple. This is evident with the emergence and success of social networking websites, such as Facebook and Twitter. More so, the use of information technology has eliminated language barriers with technologies such as language translators.


The introduction and use of high tech applications and gadgets such as iTunes, iPod and iPone has been revolutionary. Downloading, buying, playing and organising, music, videos, movies and TV shows has been made super easy and accessible. The gallant advancement of information technology through history puts the world in your palm with technologies such as iPad and Amazon Kindle.


The effect of information technology on universal communication is phenomenal. Telecommunication has gone beyond the use of basic technologies. With the advancement of the Internet and technologies such as VoIP (Voice over IP), organizations, businesses and individuals can communicate any time from different parts of the world through video and voice calls, web conferencing, seminars and virtual meetings.

Economic Advancement

A major step to global economic advancement is the removal of distance and time barriers brought about by the application of information technology to buying and selling of goods and services (e-commerce). E-commerce gave room for tiny, small and big business players to emerge. Interconnection of businesses is made painless. Thousands of local, national and international businesses and enterprises now have what is referred to as ‘web presence’ and can now reach wider audience.


Education has gone far beyond the use of bricks and mortal classrooms or traditional blackboards. The world is now in the era of e-learning, using technologies such as VLEs (Virtual Learning Environments). Students can have access to all teaching materials and resources online; engage in virtual classrooms real time or asynchronously.


The use of IT has led to an overall improvement in quality, safety and efficiency in the health care delivery system. The health care sector is positively impacted by the use of electronic health records, virtual healthcare team technologies, telemedicine, e-health grids and various specialist health care information systems.

Information technology had brought phenomenal changes to all aspect of life. The positive impact has been global and the change continues to grow exponentially. However, the disadvantages can not be ignored. A major menace brought about by IT is security and drastic reduction in privacy.

The Definition of Harddisk

Hard disk is medium data storage on a computer that consists of a collection of magnetic hard disks and spinning, as well as other electronic components. Hard disks use a flat disc called the platter, which on both sides are coated with a material that is designed to be able to store information magnetically. Platter-platter by punching holes in the center are arranged and rearranged on a spindle. Platter spinning at very high speed which is controlled by the spindle motor that is connected to the spindle. Special literacy electromagnetic tool named head mounted on a slider and is used to store information in a disk or read. Slider mounted on the arm, all of which are connected mechanically to a single collection on the surface of the disc and is connected via a device called the actuator. There was also the logic board to regulate the activity of other components and communicates with the PC.

ATA / EIDE. EIDE hard disk (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) or ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) is the latest version of a stAndard disk interface suitable for connection to the bus. Many manufacturers have a range of disk with a disk interface EIDE / ATA disk can be connected directly to the PCI bus and roomates which is used in many PC (personal computer).

SCSI. Many disks have interfaces designed for connection to a standard SCSI bus. The disks tend to be more expensive, but have better performance which is possible due to excess SCSI bus than the PCI bus. Access to the same can be done for many disk drives as the drive interface is actively connected to the SCSI bus only when the drive is ready to transfer data. This is especially useful in applications where there are a large number of requests for small files, which often happens in a computer used as a file server.

RAID. Promises great performance and provides a large and reliable storage. Disk is used both in high-performance computer and in systems that require dramatically higher reliability than normal levels. However, with the decline in prices to a more affordable level, the disk becomes more attractive even for a computer system with size – average.

SATA. SATA hard disk of the type (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment), the disk interface ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) by using the serial version of the thin cable that has small wires. Total about two-thirds of total hard drive cable with type EIDE or ATA disks are numbered 39 pins and SATA has very high speed data transmission and reducing latency. So, this serial bus is able to exceed the speed of parallel bus. 

Benefits of Contact Management Software

Real estate management software can be described as technology that acts as a sort of virtual assistant to property managers. It acts as a link between real estate agents and their potential clients, by allowing you to capture all your buyers’ information and tie them all to relevant customer related functions.

Nowadays, it is practically impossible for a home’s sales agent or a commercial property manager to function without the aid of real estate administration software. With this technology, all you have to do is input the data of your various clients, and it will assist you to personalize the interaction between yourself and the client, and provide a convenient avenue for you to evaluate your clients.

This allows you as a commercial property agent to be able to differentiate between your most profitable clients, those that you stand to gain from as well as those who you have to dedicate some time to in order to gain profits. Through this assessment, you can be able to determine if there are means through which you can improve you relations with each of your buyers in a manner that will boost your profits. This evaluation process is known as customer relations management (CRM).

Real estate management software helps a property agent to create and identify a number of processes that pin-point and describe valuable clients. There are various kinds of real estate handling software on the market, one such example of this technology being contact management software.

Through contact computer programs, lead companies are able to come up with and implement appropriate programs for clients as well as assist in the marketing of clients’ products and services. CRM computer programs also give access to a client’s latest data. As such, this technology can be used to track all the interaction of the accounts such as customer details, money transformations, employee salaries, etc. as well as to create reports, reviews and statistical analyses of your financial performance. If you are a sales representative or are always on the move, then this particular aspect of technological program or tool is sure to benefit you a lot.

The best contact management software is that with inbuilt account handling program that makes it much easier for employees to provide accurate and efficient services to your customers. The program should also make it easier for the administration to be able to coordinate, monitor as well as regulate the activities of the employees effectively.

Benefits of adopting the use of any property handling or contact administration programs are sure to make you large profits in your business. Implementing this in your business is sure to send your financial performance graphs through the roof.


A download manage is a software program which helps with the downloading (and sometimes uploading) of files from the internet, and is often considered as a must if you are often downloading a lot of data, from files, photographs, movies, games and music. Not only is this software able to keep a laptop well-organized, but it can also improve on you productivity. Download managers are packed with some highly impressive features, which might include –

Download Resume – a key feature to these programs is its ability to resume a download after a connection failure. Often able to detect an unfinished download, the software will instantly re-start an interrupted download, which ensure you never lose data. A connection drop out might be as a result of a lost internet connections, network problems, power outages, or laptop shutdown.

Integrate with the Web Browser – most of these applications work as stand-along pieces of software or in conjunction with the existing web browser (Firefox, Chrome, and Safari). However, in most cases, this type of software is able to run mush faster if you run the actual application on the desktop, rather than via the browser.

Quick Installation Wizard – an installation wizard is perfect to ensure a program is installed on a computer quickly and easily, whilst also making the necessary settings for ease in getting up and running.

Scheduling Tasks – an application of this nature is perfect at scheduling a wide-range of activities, which might include connecting to the internet at a pre-determined time, downloading the desired files, and then shutting down the laptop after it has finished. It is often a possibility to schedule several such acts to give complete flexibility in how you manage your downloads.

User-friendly Interface – for complete ease in controlling the settings and using the software, these applications often come with a nice and attractive interface with clear buttons and setting for simplifying the process of downloading the data.

Choose one of these software applications which are able to work well with your particular computer and ensure that it doesn’t use up too much of the machines resources. Also, always go with a download manager which offers you the latest advanced technologies.

All in all, the download managers are highly favored amongst the millions of internet users that enjoying downloading a wide array of data and are just looking for a way to keep the their data and laptop well-organized and easy to manage.

For a superior quality download manager for Mac try out the Folx Downloader Mac which comes with a wide-range of resourceful and innovative features.

Agif Sasmito_125150307111007